Cosmetic surgery

Cosmetic surgery

Cosmetic surgery is a type of plastic surgery that aims to improve a person's appearance, but it should be approached with caution. The results are often permanent, so it is important to be sure about the decision, to use an appropriate practitioner, and to have the right motivation. A surgeon may refer a patient for counseling before surgery if they believe there is an underlying problem that cannot be solved by the surgery, or if the patient shows signs of Body Dimorphic Disorder (BDD).
BDD can cause a person to perceive that there is something seriously wrong with their appearance, when objective evidence suggests otherwise.
Reconstructive surgery is another type of plastic surgery. It aims to improve function and to give a normal appearance to a part of the person's body that has been damaged.
History suggests that cosmetic surgery procedures have been in existence for centuries. The types of plastic surgery and augmentation procedures we see today were already used by surgeons back in the early ۱۸۰۰s.
Although the tools and techniques used in such surgeries have evolved dramatically over the past few decades, the basics of such surgeries are still the same as in the ۱۸th century. In ancient India, there was such a healer known as Sushruta who was one of the first cosmetic surgeons in the world.

Nose surgery

Nose surgery

Rhinoplasty , commonly known as a nose job, is a plastic surgery procedure for correcting and reconstructing the form, restoring the functions, and aesthetically enhancing the nose by resolving nasal trauma (blunt, penetrating, blast), congenital defect, respiratory impediment, or a failed primary rhinoplasty. Most patients ask to remove a bump, narrow nostril width, change the angle between the nose and the mouth, as well as correct injuries, birth defects, or other problems that affect breathing, such as deviated nasal septum or a sinus condition.

What’s surgery of the nose?
Each year thousands of people undergo surgery of the nose. Nasal surgery may be performed for cosmetic purposes, or a combination procedure to improve both form and function. It also may alleviate or cure nasal breathing problems, correct deformities from birth or injury, or support an aging, drooping nose.
Patients who are considering nasal surgery for any reason should seek a doctor who is a specialist in nasal airway function, as well as plastic surgery. This will ensure that efficient breathing is as high a priority as appearance.
Aesthetic nasal surgery (rhinoplasty) refines the shape of the nose, bringing it into balance with the other features of the face. Because the nose is the most prominent facial feature, even a slight alteration can greatly improve appearance. (Some patients elect chin augmentation in conjunction with rhinoplasty to better balance their features.) Rhinoplasty alone cannot give you a perfect profile, make you look like someone else, or improve your personal life. Before surgery, it is very important that the patient have a clear, realistic understanding of what change is possible as well as the limitations and risks of the procedure. The doctor dedicated information on Rhinoplasty how to prepare that includes guidelines for eating and drinking ' smoking ' consumption and intake of medications and vitamins or lack basic and washing the face. If you concentrate do these things accuracy in surgery puts you in a better direction.

The doctor dedicated information on Rhinoplasty how to prepare that includes guidelines for eating and drinking ' smoking ' consumption and intake of medications and vitamins or lack basic and washing the face. If you concentrate do these things accuracy in surgery puts you in a better direction.

Where the surgery does?
Nose surgery can be done in Office or small surgical clinics (outpatient) or at the hospital easily. Usually for convenience and cheapness done in surgical clinics.

Types of Anesthesia:
There are three main types of anesthesia: local, regional, and general.
The type of anesthesia used for a surgical procedure is determined by several factors:
• Type and length of the surgery
• Patient health
• Preference of the patient and physician

Local: this type of anesthesia is generally used for minor surgeries (e.g., breast biopsies, vasectomies) and to stitch small wounds. It is usually administered by injection, which can be painful. However, the discomfort only lasts for a brief moment, and the anesthesia usually takes effect very quickly.
Regional: Regional anesthesia numbs a large area, or region, of the body and is used for more extensive and invasive surgery. The most common types of regional anesthesia are spinals and epidurals.
General: General anesthesia renders the patient completely unconscious and with no memory of the surgical procedure upon awakening. Because it carries a higher risk for complications than other types of anesthesia, general anesthesia is used primarily for procedures that cannot be done utilizing other methods and for patients who prefer to be asleep during surgery.

What to Expect After nose Surgery:
Your face will feel puffy and the area around your eyes and nose will be bruised and swollen for several days. Cold compresses can help minimize the swelling and reduce pain. Your doctor may also recommend pain medicine. It takes about ۱۰ to ۱۴ days before most of the swelling and bruising improves.
You may need to keep your head elevated and relatively still for the first few days after surgery. It may be several weeks before you can return to strenuous activities.
You can always expect temporary swelling and bruising around the eyes and nose after rhinoplasty. Other problems that may occur include:
- Bleeding.
- Injury or holes to your septum (the wall that separates your nostrils).
- Skin problems, including breakdown of skin tissue (skin necrosis) and irritation from the tape and bandaging.
- Infection. Preventive antibiotics may be given after surgery to reduce the risk of infection.
- Serious nasal blockage caused by swelling inside the nose.
- Complications of anesthesia.
It is also possible that the cosmetic results of the surgery will not be what you wanted.

How Long After Rhinoplasty Until I Can Return to Normal Daily Life:
You’ll be looking very presentable in just a week or two, because the swelling under your eyes and cheeks will go down first, and that’s the part that’s most obvious. Many patients go back to work or school in about a week and feel very comfortable showing their face in public. Once a week of rhinoplasty recovery time has passed, bruising is greatly diminished. At that point, or soon after, only those you know well and who look carefully at your face will notice you’re had a nose job. Casual acquaintances may never figure it out. They may think you look great, but not be able to determine exactly what’s different.
After that first week of rhinoplasty recovery, you’ll still have fairly significant swelling. In fact, up to a year after your procedure, you’ll still have bit of swelling remaining. During the healing process from rhinoplasty nose reshaping, swelling dissipates gradually. With less and less swelling, the details of your new nose become clearer. As swelling disappears, you’ll find that your rhinoplasty results look better and better each day.
Tips to Shorten rhinoplasty Recovery Time
- Don’t overdo activity
- Avoid bumps
- Watch for infection
- Enjoy your new outlook

The new appearance of you:
In the early days of the surgery your face is swollen and bruise and thinking of coming out to view more beautiful. In fact, the number of patients after plastic surgery has been depressed, that is quite natural and unavoidable.
Be sure to follow these steps will be transient. Day to day the nose you better come to terms emotionally and also more juicy. Within one to two weeks of surgery your face traces will disappear. However, the process of a gradual recovery and some swelling especially in the tip of the nose remain for a few months.
The end result cosmetic surgery of the nose may be seen up to one year more.
You might be in the middle of an unexpected reaction with relatives and friends was facing. They say that your nose is not so much the difference or if you make changes to the issue they express giving you worse. In this case, trying to see what you have before surgery in mind and maintain your aims and please abstain from marginal issues.

Eyebrow surgery

Eyebrow surgery

Eyebrow -lift procedures have evolved from open techniques to more complex short incision and endoscopic techniques. Eyebrow- lift usually involves incisions in the hair-bearing scalp, but sometimes incisions are made in the forehead and/or the upper eyelids.
Open Eyebrow- lift. Your surgeon makes a long incision across the forehead, either around the hairline or in one of the creases of the forehead, and lifts the skin away from the underlying tissues. The surgeon then loosens muscles and removes fat. He or she removes any excess skin, pulls the remaining skin down, and stitches the Eyebrow into its new position. Other names sometimes used to describe open brow lift include classic, coronal or trichophytic Eyebrow- lift.
Endoscopic eyebrow lift. Your surgeon will insert an endoscope (a long, thin tube with a light at the end attached to a video camera) through several tiny incisions in the scalp. This allows your surgeon to see and work on the various internal structures of the forehead. The endoscopic technique requires very minimal incisions, but it may not be equally beneficial for all patients.
The advantage of using an endoscope to lift eyebrows is that this is a tool to allow your surgeon needed muscle and tissue without causing large gaps in the case, manipulation and restoration. Another advantage of this method is the use of endoscopy to lift the eyebrow and there will be only need topical anesthesia.

When to consider an eyebrow Lift?
- Sagging or low eyebrow position creates a tired, sad or grumpy appearance
- You have deep horizontal creases across the forehead
- You have frown lines or furrows between the eyebrows or across the top of your nose
- You have excess skin or fatty tissue hanging over your eyes

Laser blepharoplasty is the performance of eyelid surgery using a laser instead of a scalpel. Laser blepharoplasty is often combined with laser eyelid rejuvenation, as the two procedures can be performed in conjunction.
Historically there has been some contention as to the categorization of laser treatment on upper or lower eyelids as blepharoplasty, which is itself by definition surgical.
Open surgery (coronal approach)
Need to create a gap at the top of the head or just inside the hairline (which if this method is used that extra skin is removed and not the person's forehead is too long). Also this method known as the coronal approach. In this type of surgery eyebrow lift; surgeon use from a specific tool make a small gap in the hairline, and also sometimes on the upper eyelid wrinkle.

Endoscopy Surgery
After Eyebrow lift surgery with endoscopy, during a week or less, you have a higher position and a more youthful appearance, you'll see your eyebrow and then about four weeks from the initial swelling, eyebrows in its position, and your appearance is normal and desired more juicy
Endoscopy surgery eye brow lift can be a very low position of your eyebrows and modify them to their correct position. In addition to this there is very high eyebrows that rarely is seen in different people . Even with just the tail end of the lift eyebrows, eyebrow appearance seems more fit and more attractive appearance for an individual patient. Also in this action can be used an eyebrow arch is also amended and thus more symmetrical appearance to a person's eyebrow.
In the Endoscopy surgery zoom of tissue and this way is desired the doctor can see the texture better and because of its invasive properties compared to traditional surgery,eye brow lift, and this results in an injury created less than surgery.
The middle part of the face lift and andoscopy for this action can be the best form to improve problems caused by aging on the appearance of the person. Face lift surgery procedures with combined with rising the eyebrows can be used again all the young and juicy facial appearance. To determine the suitability of the use of endoscopy to lift your eyebrows for, it is important to meet and consult with plastic surgeon.

Lift the eyebrows with Botox injections
People, who are looking to improve the overall appearance of the face and eyebrows in a frown line fix using quick and easy methods, can use set from different injection techniques. To do minor changes for people who do not have new problems in this sector, Botox injections can be a perfect choice. With Botox injections in the proper position of the eyebrows, the muscles are loose and thus the eyebrows are drawn up.
The aim of this infusion reset the status of the muscles to change the appearance of the brows over time.
Also to rise the eyebrows can use of filler such as Regoderm and Radis gel that can cause high drag tail of the eyebrow. The addition used of Scoltera injection for correction and restoration is a good way.
The use of these methods depends on the level of reform required by the patient. All of these methods are, in fact, minimally invasive procedure that allows you to modify them again by increasing the patient's age.
Botox injections for wrinkles and wrinkles around the eyes stop created between the eyebrows are an excellent way. Also use Of BOTOX can also be used as an injectable substance for a slight lift eyebrows and remove horizontal lines created on the forehead to help create a better and a more youthful appearance.
The strategy of raising eyebrows with the use of BOTOX injections can be the right eyebrow, you put in the position without any of the issues relating to the recovery or rest corresponds to do surgery to you happens. Botox injection is the only ways the proper place of eyebrows in stabilization and removing wrinkles and cracks created not because of age, but can to delay require doing surgery eye brow lift.
The results of the reviews conducted in this area shows at a time when there was no Botox injections, surgeons took ten times now lift your eyebrows to patients and this topic reflects the effectiveness of the use of this method in the present time. About the cost of BOTOX for any person is variable with regard to the various factors. About the clinic that tell cost to you by phone will be cautious because announcing the issue could represent the relevant clinics incapacity.

Ear surgery

Ear surgery

Ear surgery, also known as otoplasty, can improve the shape, position or proportion of the ear.
Otoplasty can correct a defect in the ear structure that is present at birth that becomes apparent with development or it can treat misshapen ears caused by injury.
Ear surgery creates a more natural shape, while bringing balance and proportion to the ears and face. Correction of even minor deformities can have profound benefits to appearance and self-esteem.
If protruding or disfigured ears bother you or your child, you may consider plastic surgery.

Ear surgery can treat:
- Overly large ears — a condition called macrotia
- Protruding ears occurring on one or both sides in varying degrees — not associated with hearing loss
- Adult dissatisfaction with previous ear surgery

Ear pinning and ear reshaping surgery is usually performed under a local anesthetic for adults and general anesthesia for children.
To begin ear pinning surgery, the surgeon makes an incision behind the ear to expose the cartilage. The cartilage is then reshaped and excess skin is removed. Finally, if necessary, the ear is repositioned more closely to the head, and the incision is closed with non-removable stitches or sutures.
Cosmetic ear surgery generally lasts between one and two hours, depending on the extent of the surgery.
If a patient has protruding ears, ear pinning is used to position the ears more closely to the sides of the head. Ear pinning combines removing skin from the back of the ear, cartilage sparing, and scoring techniques. This fusion of techniques helps the surgeon to create the ideal shape and positioning of the patient’s ears.
There are many different techniques used to accomplish ear pinning during otoplasty surgery. The surgical technique the physician chooses depends upon the amount of correction the patient’s ears require. The various methods of ear pinning and reshaping can be classified into two primary groups: cartilage sparing and cartilage scoring (cutting).
Cartilage scoring techniques involve creating incisions in the cartilage to rearrange, add, or remove the tissue. There is a greater risk of scarring when these techniques are used, but those scars are difficult to see.
Cartilage sparing techniques use stitches and sutures to change the ear’s position and shape. A cartilage sparing otoplasty surgery is non-invasive, often resulting in smooth, natural-looking curvatures.
Reconstructive ear surgery is a form of otoplasty used to correct deformities or injuries. It is commonly used to correct Microtia, a congenital defect of the ear that occurs in about three out of every ۱۰,۰۰۰ live births. Injuries that call for reconstructive ear surgery include burns, lacerations, and infected or torn piercings. In some cases, cartilage can be removed from the patient’s ribs to augment the ear and help it attain a more natural appearance.
Below is referenced some ear disorders that it will be l fix by autoplastic the reconstructive surgery.

Congenital disorders
• kacot ear: the ear of the person lacking the auricle.
• Cat ears: edge of the ear to the front side up, like a cat.
• The ear hangs a large similarity to the ear: a cup and the curvature of the ear toward the inside.
• The ear tube: ears to the front side of the tube like a petition.
• Wildermot ear: the curvature of the top of the reverse side of the head and ears of the patient.
• Bad shape of ear stalls dimorphic odd that can cause a person's edge ear like the fairy.
Accumulated ear: the part of the ear lacks external part of the skin and cartilage in the back of the ear.
• Hidden ear: the upper part of the curvature of the ear hidden inside the head.
Create gaps in the auricle: there is a niche in the Tulip ears.
• The question mark: ear looks like a question mark. There is a distance between the ear and the external curvature Tulip ears.
• Microta in which a person's ear is too small and underdeveloped.
• Macrota in which a person's ear is too big.

Eyelid surgery

Eyelid surgery

Eyelid surgery (also called an eye lift or blepharoplasty), reduces bagginess from lower eyelids and removes excess skin from the upper eyelids.
This surgery is usually done for cosmetic reasons. It's also an effective way to improve sight in older people whose sagging upper eyelids get in the way of their vision.
An eye lift will not eliminate dark circles under the eyes, crow's feet, or other facial wrinkles. It is often done along with other procedures such as laser resurfacing, filler injections, or forehead lifts.

The Eyelid Aging Process
As skin ages, it gradually loses its elasticity. A lack of elasticity plus the constant pull from gravity causes excessive skin to collect on the upper and lower eyelids.
Excess skin on the lower eyelid causes wrinkles and bulges. On the upper eyelids, an extra fold of skin can hang over the eyelashes and get in the way of seeing.
The fat that cushions the eyeball from the skull can also cause bulges in the upper and lower eyelids. The thin membrane that holds the fat in place weakens with age, letting the fat come forward into the lids like a hernia.
The people who can use of this method:
The best candidates for an eye lift are people who are in good health and who have realistic expectations. Most are ۳۵ years or older, but if baggy eyelids or droopy eyelids run in your family, you may decide to have the surgery done sooner.
Eyelid surgery can enhance your appearance and help build your confidence. However, it may not result in your ideal look or alter your facial structure. Before you decide to have surgery, think about your goals and discuss them with your surgeon.
Upper eyelid surgery can last at least five to seven years. Lower eyelid surgery rarely needs to be repeated. Of course, your eyes will still age after the procedure.
If your lids sag again, a forehead lift rather than another eye lift may be the preferred procedure.
Beauty considerations
The best applicants for eyelid surgery are people with the following characteristics:
• Blowing Misty being the upper eyelid drooping of the eyelid, eye surgery: this case remove eye bags are under Misty and puff.
• Tired eyes: eyelid surgery destroys features that make tired face and shows age.

The excess upper eyelid skin surgeon: West end firm and its additional section.
• ۱۸ years of age to above: most applicants for more than ۳۵ years of age, but if the eyelid drooping or blowing dirt in a family is common, it can be lower in early action .
• Appropriate physical and mental health: Although there is a small act of eyelid surgery, however, like any other potential complications associated with surgery is that it is better to be patient with the full knowledge of them decided to do the operation.

The applicant, after the definitive decision in the first place, should contact surgeon and ask advice time. The surgeon during the consultation session helps the patient to realistic expected results action also notified the cost of the surgery .The surgeon will explain the way the action is entirely up to the patient.

Upper and lower eyelid surgery
A relatively simple surgery is eyelid enhancement surgery that makes faces younger. Upper eyelid surgery is useful for patients that their upper eyelids drooping so they cannot see very well. However, raising the bottom eyelid drooping or blowing with the aim of modifying the lower eyelid being ridden.
Upper and lower eyelid surgery some patients can be done under local anesthetic or complete anesthesia if the patient wants to do with this way.

Lower eyelid surgery
Upper eyelid skin removal was originally going to be surgery; however, the lower eyelid surgery with the goal of removing the accumulated fat has done a more visible under the eye. Drain the fat and fix the problem skin smooth surface, tight and young at the top of the cheek. In addition, the lower eyelid surgery physician finds it possible injections to grease or gel in the eye following and look healthy skin and forgive the previous fatigue destroy mode. The cut eyelid created by surgery enhancement quickly and appearance after that is similar to the natural folds around the eyelids and finds no way to attract the attention.

Upper eyelid surgery
The surgeon in the operation to raise the upper eyelid skin and extra fat tissue can make a take that causes seem to swollen eyelids. Treatment fixes can be done with the help of this surgery by The Elimination of the symptoms of aging such as excess fat, loose skin, it's time to return back and there is another time fell young and happy. In the upper eyelid surgery natural-cut line in China to create the upper eyelids that hide the scars completely. The surgeon any additional skin blocker visibility or seems to get tired or fallen agent faces destroy. Sometimes the muscle is also reset their position can be corrected. The remaining skin and connected again to find a younger patient. Then the surgeons cut with sutures are very delicate. Upper eyelid with the aim of preparing young and up again to face the patient for surgery, and if the operation to be performed by skilled and experienced surgeon, the patient can be sure that after surgery will have face with very open eyes. With increasing age the skin elastic loses its shell, and less flexibility. The process of aging cause lines around the eyes, wrinkles and skin of the upper eyelid extra funny was spreads to showcase a tired face. Fortunately, the practical upper eyelid surgery, minimally invasive and highly efficient is that it can be return to the face exhilarating and rejuvenating.

Recovery time and care after eyelid surgery
The patient usually after eyelid surgery for treatment of eyelid drooping eyelids feels stiff and may feel the pain of that, of course, to relieve easily taking painkillers. Until a few days after surgery should be rubbed ointment on the cut, to stay soft place. Put cold compresses on the eye also reduce swelling. The use of eye drops also prevents drying of the eye.
Patients in the first week after the operation should refrain of doing activities such as reading, watching TV, using the computer and working with lenses that cause dry eyes, Swelling and bruising can be improved with to keep the head in the days after the operation. The doctor stitched between ۲ to ۷ days after the eyelid surgery. Patients usually ten days after surgery can do normal activities. Patients are recommended one to two weeks after surgery to protect the eyes against irritation caused by wind and sunlight to dark eye glasses. The eyes of some patients in the first few weeks can be quickly exhausted during recovery.
For this reason it is recommended that any of the patients, sometimes have a short rest and sleep. They are prohibited do any activity of enhancing the flow of blood in the eyes during the first ۳ to ۴ weeks after surgery.

The results of the surgery
Immediately after surgery Place the slices there is red and looks irritated and sometimes a small bump. Scars caused by eyelid surgery to become smooth, little by little pale to be subtle. Around the eyes during recovery after eyelid surgery swelling and discoloration .
The results of this action are usually durable for years and in some cases even are permanent until the end of the life of and the person has a young and attractive eyes. It is worth noting that although fat in eyelid surgery can be emptied forever.
Although surgeons usually cut in the eyelids to create folds to the wounded did not remain anywhere, but sometimes it is possible to remain fit to scar like that most of the complications after the surgery will fix of the eyelids can be with another reconstructive surgery. Patients will be asked about ۶ week’s refrain of rub the area around the eye because new tissue is so sensitive and may damage .
Eyelid surgery has many advantages that most indicators improve the overall appearance of the eyes. In eyelid surgery can be remove extra skin overlying the natural upper eyelid crease and picked up puff skits mode that makes the eyes appear tired. In the lower eyelid surgery can be picked up extra skin wrinkles and lines will be modified.
In this operation can remove Puffy bags under the eyes that cause the following to be revealing permanent Iris.
Another advantage of cosmetic surgery of the eyelids and face to increase the confidence of the individual. Eyelid surgery is often aimed at reforming wrinkle skin which causes unhappiness and discomfort of the patient. Eyelid surgery has a variety of functional benefits that improve a person's Visual power. Remove the extra skin brings more beauty, but this is not the only advantage of Belafaroplasti, because the power of peripheral vision blocked due to eyelid surgery also returns to the normal mode.
Many of the operations that are merely aesthetic aspect, due to the nature of their choice not covered by insurance. But since the eyelid surgery with the goal of restoring the power of the vision can be done as well, the insurance fund is usually a lot of eyelid surgery as a covered unsociable. Visual field test to determine how much the scope has made limited and vision of this extra skin peripheral vision.
Possible side effects

Temporary inability to close the eye full (eyelid) is one of the possible complications of surgery of the eyelids is the result of natural dry eye too. This side effect usually to be relieved after a few weeks or a few months, the patient during this period should use of medications and treatments such as eye drops and moisturizer and even, if necessary, the eyes during the night close to the dressing and dry eyes. Some surgeons, eyelid a few weeks after pulling the sutures to massage the skin remains soft and better eyelids. Other possible complications and fortunately rare eyelid surgery are:
• Reduce the Visual power because of retro bulbar bleeding (bleeding within eye, behind the eyeball)
• Infection of the eyelids
• Diplopia caused by eye problems
• Reveal scarring
• Placement of the eyelids in inappropriate situations

Insufficient correction done (removal more the necessity of additional skin)
• The surfeit of corrective action (removing too much skin)
• Numbness eyelids

Botox injections

Botox injections

What is Botox?
Botox (onabotulinumtoxinA), also called botulinum toxin type A, is made from the bacteria that causes botulism. Botulinum toxin blocks nerve activity in the muscles, causing a temporary reduction in muscle activity. Botox is actually the name of the drug trade, which is made by the US Company Allergan. In other countries this drug to be produced, which most other names which is available in Iran, Disport the name of the company that made the British and approve by FDA.
Botox is used to treat cervical dystonia (severe spasms in the neck muscles). It is also used to treat muscle spasms (stiffness) in the upper limbs (elbows, wrists, fingers) or lower limbs (ankles, toes). Botox is also used to treat severe underarm sweating (hyperhidrosis).
Botox is also used to treat certain eye muscle conditions caused by nerve disorders. This includes uncontrolled blinking or spasm of the eyelids, and a condition in which the eyes do not point in the same direction. It is also used to prevent chronic migraine headaches in adults who have migraines for more than ۱۵ days per month, each lasting ۴ hours or longer. This medicine should not be used to treat a common tension headache.
Botox Cosmetic is used to temporarily lessen the appearance of facial wrinkles.

Important information
You should not use Botox if you have an infection in the area where the medicine will be injected. Botox should not be used to treat overactive bladder or incontinence if you have a current bladder infection or if you are unable to urinate (unless you routinely use a catheter).
When the small wrinkles and lines you see around your eyes or mouth begin to distract you when you look at yourself in a mirror, you might be ready for Botox. For several years now, Botox has been the treatment when it comes to eliminating these types of wrinkles and lines for both men and women. Many of those who use the treatment notice a significant difference in the way they appear. Botox works by disrupting the communication between muscles and their nerves endings. This disruption provides a temporary relaxation of these muscles, which leads to the appearance of less wrinkles.

How Often Can We Use Botox?
It is important to understand that Botox is not a permanent solution for getting rid of lines and wrinkles. While it temporarily blocks the signals from nerves to the muscles, the Botox injections will eventually wear off and those signals will begin to get through again. Most doctors who administer Botox agree that a typical Botox treatment should last for up to ۳ to ۴ months. Doctors will often start with lower doses to begin with as they test to see just how well the treatment is working. Lower doses of Botox will wear off sooner. However, this is an important first step to determine just how well your body works with Botox. Once your doctor can see that things are normal, he or she may begin to give you a larger amount. Still, it is important to remember that after a few months, you may begin to see the reappearance of wrinkles.

Do Botox improve any kind of wrinkles?

Surely not . Firstly, Botox cannot be injected to all areas, because the cause is an abnormal form of the face.
Secondly, sometimes to treat wrinkles in addition to Botox should be used fillers (gel).

Tumors of the neck

Tumors of the neck

Alcohol and tobacco use are the two most important risk factors for head and neck cancers, especially cancers of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypo pharynx, and larynx. At least ۷۵% of head and neck cancers are caused by tobacco and alcohol use .People who use both tobacco and alcohol are at greater risk of developing these cancers than people who use either tobacco or alcohol alone.
To find the cause of the signs or symptoms of a problem in the head and neck area, a doctor evaluates a person’s medical history, performs a physical examination, and orders diagnostic tests. The exams and tests may vary depending on the symptoms. Examination of a sample of tissue under a microscope is always necessary to confirm a diagnosis of cancer. If the diagnosis is cancer, the doctor will want to learn the stage (or extent) of disease. Staging is a careful attempt to find out whether the cancer has spread and, if so, to which parts of the body. Staging may involve an examination under anesthesia (in an operating room), x-rays and other imaging procedures, and laboratory tests. Remember that with early detection, most head and neck cancers are treatable, so seeing the warning signs, immediately to see a doctor. Malignant cancers are primary and secondary that Endocrinology cancer includes early type under the jaw, thyroid and lymph nodes.
The treatment plan for an individual patient depends on a number of factors, including the exact location of the tumor, the stage of the cancer, and the person’s age and general health. Treatment for head and neck cancer can include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of treatments.
The symptoms of head and neck cancer:

۱- Neck masses
The cancer in the head or neck, usually starting before spreading to other areas, the lymph gland
to the neck. Neck masses that continue over two weeks should be reviewed by your doctor promptly.
Of course all of the masses, is not cancerous, but one or more Neck mass may be the first symptom of cancer of the mouth, throat, larynx, thyroid, or blood cancer, and lymphoma. Such masses are usually painless and bigger constantly.

۲ -Change the sound
Most cancers of the larynx cause the sound change. Although most of the sound changes are not caused by cancer, but you should not venture. If the change took longer than two weeks, consult a physician.
Neck cancer

۳-oral gland
Most cancers of the mouth or tongue causing a wound or swelling that they are not disappears. This is not painful and may therefore be misleading. Bleeding is possible, but usually not seen until the advanced stages.

۳. Bring up the blood
In this case, usually is not the cause, cancer. Although the tumors of the nose, mouth, throat or lungs can cause bleeding. If you have blood in your phlegm or saliva, and seen more than a few days, you should consult a physician.

۴ -Swallowing problems
Cancer of the throat or esophagus may swallow solid foods and liquids are sometimes difficult. If you're having trouble swallowing, almost always by the practitioner examination. Radiographic barium swallow or endoscopy of the esophagus, usually done to find out the cause,. For the face and lips and an ear that does not improve, change the color of black or black-blue skin, a change in facial moles like resizing, color or bleed should be checked by your doctor

۵ Skin changes
The most common head and neck cancer, basal cell skin cancer. Fortunately, in the case of early treatment, the result is excellent. This cancer often in areas exposed to the Sun, like the forehead, face and ears, but can occur anywhere on the skin.
Other types of skin cancers such as squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma in the head and neck on up. The majority of squamous cell cancers will appear, on the lower lip and ears.

۶ -Persistent earache
Constant pain in the ear or around it when swallowing throat infection or could be a sign of a tumor. Especially if this is the case with the forms of swallowing, bold voices, or neck masses, it must be seriously recommended and the examination by the ENT specialist a nose.
Causes of head and neck cancer
The use of tobacco and alcohol is the most common cause of cancer of the mouth, throat, larynx and tongue.
In adulthood that does not use cigarettes and alcoholic beverages human Papilloma virus can cause throat cancer.
Exposed to the Sun for a long time can cause cancer of the lips and skin.
Remember that with early detection, most head and neck cancers are treatable, so seeing the warning signs, immediately to see a doctor.

Tumors of the larynx

Tumors of the larynx

The larynx is a tube-shaped Member which is with a length of about ۵ cm in the neck production of sound. This member can apply to speak, breathe, or swallow the interference. The larynx is located in the upper part of the trachea and its walls are made of cartilage is sometimes referred to a large part of the inferior larynx cartilage that this is also called the Apple of Adam. The vocal folds are two fields together, the muscle that make up the inside shape of the larynx. When air enters the nose or tail of the first act of the mouth of the larynx and then the bottom part of the trachea and enters the lungs and exhale when you practice the previous path photo. When breathing is resting the vocal folds, and air from the space between them, without creating any voice passes. But when Word of conviction of the vocal folds are close together and move on. So that the air inside the lungs push of the past between them and force them to vibrate, producing sound as hereby. Then the tongue, lips and teeth this sound would become the word and the word. The food pipe or esophagus, from the mouth to the stomach, just behind the trachea and larynx. The larynx and esophagus inside the openings of the neck are very close together. Hence when something cans devour, a valve called the laryngeal epithelium covers up the glut on the food enters the trachea.
Signs and symptoms:
The symptom larynx of cancer mainly depends on the size and location of the tumor. Most larynx cancers are starting from audio cords. These tumors are rarely painful, but almost always caused Eclipse (of violence) or other changes in the sound the tumors in the area above the vocal folds are may cause bumps on the neck, sore throat or earache. Tumors that begin at the bottom area of the vocal folds are very rare. These tumors Act will make breathing difficult and cause wheezing or shortness of breath. Chronic cough or feel the bumps and sore throat cramps can also be symptoms of laryngeal cancer risk and tumor growth, may cause pain, lack of weight, when you are eating bad breath and frequent choking modes. In some cases, tumors that grows in the larynx can cause being difficult to swallow all of these symptoms may be low by cancer or other problems. People who are faced with such symptoms usually go, hanging ears and nose specialist.

Salivary gland tumor

Salivary gland tumor

The salivary glands are located around the mouth. They produce saliva, which moistens food to help with chewing and swallowing. There are ۳ main pairs of salivary glands. The parotid glands are the largest. They are located in each cheek in front of the ears. Two submandibular glands are under the floor of the mouth under both sides of the jaw. Two sublingual glands are under the floor of the mouth. There are also thousands of small salivary glands lining the rest of the mouth. The main work of the salivary glands secretes saliva, which helps to digest food.
The most common type of salivary gland tumor is a slow-growing noncancerous (benign) tumor of the parotid gland. The tumor gradually increases the size of the gland. Some of these tumors can be cancerous (malignant).
Surgery is most often done to remove the affected salivary gland. If the tumor is benign, no other treatment is needed.
Radiation therapy or extensive surgery may be needed if the tumor is cancerous. Chemotherapy may be used when the disease has spread beyond the salivary glands.

Fortunately, more than half of benign salivary gland cancer and adjacent tissues are not infected
Cancer of the salivary glands parotid glands are usually located in front of the ear,.
Salivary gland cancer is also smaller, more in the area of the roof of the mouth (the palate).

What are salivary gland cancer symptoms?
-Feel pain in the mouth
-Wound in oral mucous curtain that covers on tumor
-The loss of the ability to move for
-Nasal congestion
-Make changes in vision
-Numbness in parts of the face
-The weakness of the muscles on one side of the face
-Difficulty in swallowing
- Difficulty in opening the mouth
-A swelling in the jaw and near neck and mouth
Now the chemotherapy as a standard medical method is not used for the treatment cancer of the salivary glands and there is a further aspect of the research.

What are risk factors for cancer of the salivary glands?
-Age: as the higher people age, increased the probability of developing cancer salivary glands.
-Radiation exposure: people that exposed to radiation x rays have been more to treat tumors of the head and neck So this people have regularly, Blood tests in the case of the initial symptoms, is detected immediately cancer of the salivary glands. People who have jobs are with substances such as rubber, mining, extraction of plumbing such as the head and have a job, are more prone to cancer of the salivary glands.

What kind of experiments specifies this cancer?
-Clinical examination: a detailed examination by the specialist area of the throat, neck and jaw can be find suspicious swelling.
-Imaging: Imaging tests such as a CT scan and an MRI can detect tumors and exact location.
A sampling of the cancer or biopsy tissue: the doctor during the procedure, the suspect entered the needle into the area, and some of the cells and fluids to collect samples. The sample was taken and for analysis sent to the laboratory .
salivary glands cancer treatment ways

۱ - surgery : surgery for cancer salivary glands , is removed. three types of surgery :
- to remove part of the salivary glands: If the tumor in terms of volume is small,and in the region would be easy access to some of the cancer glands remove this part and remains healthysector
mouth salivary glands .
-Total removal of the salivary glands: If the tumor is large, all the salivary glands can be removed.
-Removal of the lymph nodes of the neck: If medical evidence showed the tumor with neck lymph nodes infected, in addition to the salivary glands of the mouth, neck lymph nodes will also be removed.
-Radiation therapy or radiotherapy: strong beams such as x-rays, to kill cancer cells. During radiotherapy, the sick person sleep on a table and a machine that moves around him have been entered strong beams in particular parts cancerous.
-Chemotherapy: a kind of medicinal therapy that uses chemicals to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy usually for patients that their cancer is advanced and has passed to the remote parts of the body
Now chemotherapy is not used as a standard medical method for the treatment of cancer of the salivary glands and is more the research aspect.
The ways of reducing risk of cancer of the salivary glands

Doing the following ways is more for people under radiotherapy the area of the head and neck, and usually experience dry mouth:
Brushing your teeth regularly and several times a day: it is recommended that the software be used for brushing teeth and brush with softness and perfect accuracy to be struck.
-After a meal your mouth washes with a solution of warm water and salt.
-Always keep your mouth moist (but not with sugar consumption), because usually people who are under radiation suffer from dry mouth.
-Use of watery foods and increasing the moisture of your mouth.
- The refusal to consumption of foods that are dry or contain a variety of seasonings and sauces.
- The refusal to consumption of alcoholic beverages and caffeinated.
- The refusal to consumption of acidic foods and drinks that will stimulate your oral environment.

The tonsils surgery

The tonsils surgery

A tonsillectomy is a surgical procedure to remove the tonsils. Tonsils are two small glands located in the back of your throat. Tonsils house white blood cells to help you fight infection, but sometimes the tonsils themselves become infected.
Tonsillitis is an infection of the tonsils that can make your tonsils swell and give you a sore throat. Frequent episodes of tonsillitis might be a reason you need to have a tonsillectomy. Other symptoms of tonsillitis include fever, trouble swallowing, and swollen glands around your neck. Your doctor may notice that your throat is red and your tonsils are covered in yellow coating. Sometimes, the swelling can go away on its own. In other cases, antibiotics or a tonsillectomy might be necessary.
A tonsillectomy can also be a treatment for breathing problems, like heavy snoring and sleep apnea.

Who Needs a Tonsillectomy?
Tonsillitis and the need for tonsillectomies are more common in children than adults. However, people of any age can experience trouble with their tonsils and require surgery.
One case of tonsillitis is not enough to warrant a tonsillectomy. Usually, the surgery is a treatment option for those who are often sick with tonsillitis or strep throat. If you’ve had at least seven cases of tonsillitis or strep in the last year (or five cases or more over each of the last two years), talk to your doctor about whether a tonsillectomy is an option for you.

Tonsillectomy can also treat other medical problems, including:
• breathing problems related to swollen tonsils
• frequent and loud snoring
• periods in which you stop breathing during sleep
• bleeding of the tonsils
• trouble swallowing chewy foods, especially meats
• cancer of the tonsils

Preparing for a Tonsillectomy
You will need to stop taking anti-inflammatory medicines two weeks before your surgery. This type of medication includes aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen. Drugs of this kind can increase your risk of bleeding during and after your surgery. You should let your doctor know about any medications, herbs, or vitamins you are taking.
You’ll also need to fast after midnight before your tonsillectomy. This means you shouldn’t drink or eat. An empty stomach reduces the risk of feeling nauseous from the anesthetic.
Be sure to plan for your at-home recovery. Someone will need to drive you home and help you for the first couple of days following your tonsillectomy. Most people stay home from work or school for about a week following surgery.
There are several different ways to remove tonsils. The most common method is called “cold knife (steel) dissection.” In this case, your surgeon removes your tonsils with a scalpel.
Another common method for tonsillectomy involves burning away the tissues through a process called cauterization. Ultrasonic vibration (using sound waves) is also used in some tonsillectomy procedures. Tonsillectomies usually take about a half hour.
No matter what surgical method your doctor chooses, you’ll be asleep with a general anesthetic. You won’t be aware of the surgery or feel any pain. When you wake up after the tonsillectomy, you’ll be in a recovery room. Medical staff will monitor your blood pressure and heart rate as you wake up. Most people can go home the same day after a successful tonsillectomy.

What Is Adenoiditis?
Adenoiditis is an inflammation of the adenoids caused by infection. Adenoids are masses of lymphatic tissue that help the body fight infection. Adenoids are found in the throat, also called the pharynx, just behind the nose. Along with the tonsils, adenoids are the first line of defense against bacteria and viruses.
The lymphatic system performs several roles to help protect you from infection. Adenoids are part of the lymphatic system. Adenoids store white blood cells and antibodies that help to destroy possible infections threatening your health. If the adenoids become inflamed, they may not perform their function properly.

Other problems associated with swollen adenoids include:
• sounding nasally when speaking, as if you’re talking through your nose
• sore or dry throat from breathing through the mouth
• breathing through your mouth becomes more comfortable than breathing through your nose
• snoring during the night or any time you sleep
• Symptoms of infection, such as a runny nose that produces green or discolored mucus.

Complications after tonsil surgery
Pain was the most common complication. The tonsillectomy procedure also carries a risk of complications, including breathing difficulties, infection, blood clots, or bleeding. While not common, any of these complications will lengthen the amount of time it takes for you to recover.

Postoperative care:
۱- Avoid doing of intense physical activity ۱۲ to ۱۴ hours after the surgery. Bathing is allowed.
۲-taking prescribed drugs, which include antibiotics and painkillers (acetaminophen).
۳. Washing the mouth with the serum.
۴- After surgery ۶ hours should not eat or drink something .
۵-it is better to put the patient in the vicinity of the aerator.
۶. After up to two weeks the surgery refused of taking aspirin.
۷- Refused of smooth throat and frequent coughs for up to ۲ days after the surgery.
۸. two to three days resting at home.
۹-۱۰ days after the action should have soft foods and liquids.
۱۰. two weeks after the operation refused the use of chips, snack,nuts, popcorn, toast, biscuits, hot and spicy foods, acidicfoods (such as tomato or orange juice), and access to any food and tighten up .
۱۱- Pationte are recommended chewing-gum (by increasing the secretion of saliva), candy, ice cream, iced milk, lukewarm water and jelly.
۱۲. Drink enough water to avoid getting low water.
۱۳. Avoid cigarette smoking .

Thyroid surgery

Thyroid surgery

Nowadays a lot of people in the affected of The failure associated with the thyroid gland community has this condition, if not detected properly, and the process of therapy during the sick person does not have the side effects that sometimes co-editor of these side effects are serious disorder in the life of sick person . In some cases the thyroid treatment requires surgery, and sometimes also with medicines and other medical techniques it can be cured. In this Article have been investigated thyroid disease and its treatment and surgical techniques.
Define the thyroid gland must be said, thyroid gland is one of the endocrine glands ofthe human , or is that the hormone secreted the physiologic function of the body, such as heart rate, perspiration and energy consumption.
This is the gland actually is in the middle and down of the neck. The bottom of the larynx and the trachea anterior half to form a half circle is derived. The shape of the thyroid gland, such as the English letter H, which is the middle part it on the trachea, and are located the two sides that it is thicker on either side of the trachea. The thyroid gland in the normal position, not sense generally with a touching .

What are thyroid diseases?
The most common thyroid disease, hypothyroidism and a great and prolific of the thyroid gland and thyroid gland to become prolific called Hipertiroidisem and for example, graves ' disease, toxic Nodular goiter toxic adenoma, and among thesecategories.
The thyroid gland is becoming a low working called hypothyroidism and its disease including inflammation of the thyroid.
Thyroid should seriously until do not need surgery.

The signs and symptoms of the disease and treatment methods
In the case of a large thyroid disease should also be a great activity to cause thyroid that in graves ' disease, or hypothyroidism can be created in other words, both of these diseases can cause physical enlargement of the thyroid gland.
In addition to the above diseases that lead to thyroid. When thyroid gland with normal activity levels gets big that have also great this may be the great thyroid called goiter. And so, having a low prolific or goiter cannot express this disease.
those who have a positive family history of thyroid cancer or a history of head and neck radiation therapy in childhood for various reasons such as acne, adenoids and... In them Have a susceptibility to thyroid cancer. As well as people who have symptoms of swelling of the neck, difficulty swallowing and respiratory disorder and have a problem, they should refer to the specialist.
How thyroid diseases are diagnosed?
About how to diagnose thyroid disease should be said or dysfunction diagnosis of thyroid mass by obtaining a history of the disease and begins the physical examination. In addition, blood tests and imaging studies may also need done FNA.

For the diagnosis of thyroid diseases are generally considered to be the following:
۱-evaluation of the larynx and vocal cords with the use of telescopes with mirrors of the special examination
۲- dohng ultrasound from the thyroid and neck
۳- doing Blood tests related to thyroid function
۴-radioactive Thyroid scan
۵- biopsies by FNA
۶-simple photo from chest
۷. doing a CT scan or MRI

What is recommended for the treatment of thyroid disease ?
The process of therapy of thyroid diseases, depending on the nature or essence of thyroid disease, treatment includes the following items:
۱. The treatment of hypothyroidism, thyroid hormone tablets are prescribed in order to offset the lack of it.
۲. Treatment of hyperthyroidism with prescribed medication that is the impact of the increase in the production of thyroid hormones to block. Or that of iodine thyroid tissue with the aim of decommissioning.
۳-the third of the proposed treatment, removal of the thyroid with surgical .

If someone have a goiter, treat him according description are receiving, of the physical examination, testing and planning the following suggestions:
The imaging study of the size, the position and attributes of each thyroid gland nodules. This image includes the journalism studies, ultrasound and CT scan or MRI.
Needle aspiration (FNA) is a safe and painless way. In this way the needle to place the neck mass there is located in the thyroid tissue is removed samples and compiled and fluid. Sometimes this action along with ultrasound is done to guide the needle into the Nedol that causes goiter. FNA done the pain and fewer complications and a fairly good and detailed information of the nature of the benign and malignant nodules.

Thyroid surgery
Thyroid surgery is necessary in some cases. If the report determines the FNA, or suspected cancer and cancer declaration or report, in the case of the three surgical interventions is necessary. Also, surgery is recommended in cases where the disturbing image profile nodules reported or that implies it's getting bigger, .
Also perform surgery is recommended When the trachea and esophagus pressure and cause the patient's breathing or swallowing disorder .

How thyroid surgery?
In thyroid surgery, all or part of the gland is removed and the surgery also has made at least in the hospital and underwent general anesthesia. this surgery usually can be removed, caught lobe is associated with the lesion or mass inside. In some cases, in order to determine possible malignancy, the samples sent to the laboratory immediately removed by microscopic study of rapid tissue nature it can be determined based on the result of sometimes frozan. section, compared to the total removalof the thyroid gland and surrounding tissues, even neck gland thyroid action.

Recommended after surgery
After the surgery if there is a need to get the drug, should give sufficient explanation to the patient. Drug therapy includes administration of thyroid hormone, calcium, and vitamin d. Some of the symptoms may be within two to three days after surgery may not be specified. However, if you encounter the following symptoms with be sure to consult with your doctor:
Numbness around the lips and hands, increasing the pain of ulcers, fever, swelling, ulcers and respiratory disorder.
If the surgery is done for thyroid cancer, hormonal replacement therapy to be postponed for a few weeks. This action causes the scan with radioactive to determined better and more accurately the remaining thyroid tissue, and the extent of the release of the malignant cells to the lymph nodesor other areas of the body.

Snoring surgery

Snoring surgery

The muscles of the throat are stiff and hard in normal mode but when we sleep the muscles are soft and relax in some individuals becoming relax the extent that protection of structures with the encountered problem and cause obstruction of the Airways and shake the roof of the mouth with the action of the tail, and a tidy and thus make the sound of Snoring.
Snoring is sound created by vibration of tissue in the throat (usually the soft palate, or back section of the roof of the mouth) during sleep. There are a number of treatment options, including conservative steps like weight loss, sleeping on your side or stomach rather than on your back, and avoiding alcohol within ۳ hours of bedtime. Surgery can also be very effective, especially when combined with these basic approaches. Just like with sleep apnea surgery, the key with snoring surgery is to figure out what is causing the snoring and coming up with a plan that matches the person who snores. The most common snoring procedures are those that involve the nose or the soft palate.

Some important points that you should remember before undertaking surgery:
- After the operation you will experience pain.
- Surgery for snoring should never be carried out without a prior sleep study.
- Surgery is a treatment of last resort; try everything else first.
- There is no guarantee of success.
- Even if initially successful, snoring can return after a few months.
- Snoring may not be associated with the soft palate at all. It could occur at the base of the tongue. Without full diagnostic procedures it is not possible to differentiate. Surgery will not eradicate tongue based snoring.
- Following a sleep study, surgery should not be considered unless you fit the following criteria: low alcohol intake, non-obese, tonsils still present, and correct jaw shape.
- Even if you do comply with the above, you are advised that there are many short and long term limitations to such procedures.

Endoscope sinusitis

Endoscope sinusitis

Endoscopic sinus surgery is a surgical procedure used to remove blockages in the sinuses. These blockages can cause sinusitis, in which the sinus mucous membranes swell and become blocked, causing pain, drainage and impaired breathing.
Endoscopic surgery may be needed when medicine has failed to improve or cure chronic sinusitis. It is the preferred method of surgery for most cases of chronic sinusitis that require surgery. Endoscopic surgery improves symptoms in about ۹۰ out of ۱۰۰ people. But surgery does not always completely eliminate sinusitis. Some people may need a second operation.
Surgery is most successful when used along with medicine and home treatment to prevent future sinus infections. A second surgery and future sinus infections may be avoided if antibiotics are taken to prevent reinfection.

severe sinusitis:
In the Patients of the nasal and Sinus Allergy, are inflated. This swelling causes the obstruction sinosha related of the nose to the producer. On the other hand, there are increased rates of Allergy and sinus nasal secretions. Due to the above two factors can cause allergy, sinusitis. It is said sinusitis allergi.
In the case of infectious sinusitis this time is easier. I.e. as the pharynx infection suffered because of the swelling and secretion, nasal and sinus, can also become swollen. Treatment of acute sinusitis, medicinal treatment consists of antibiotic and topical dcongestan like fenilafarin and anti-inflammatory.

chronic sinusitis:
But what is considered chronic sinositi and should be treatment by the method of surgery? If the discharge of secretions in sinus is created and this blockage causes chronic changes in the mucosa of the inner wall of the sinus, this is called chronic sinusitis. The main symptom of chronic sinusitis, infectious secretions behind the pharynx is continuous. Chronic sinusitis treatment don't answer and its treatment "surgery". Sinus surgery is performed by two way conventional methods, endoscopic procedure.
In the conventional method, content within the sinus drains and gets on the method of endoscopic nasal sinus opens into the urethra.
But during the ۱۹۸۰’s onwards this approach among surgeons and found many of the fans and the day to day increase this method. It was estimated that not only added today, has been replaced common surgery sinus.
This method applied For the removal of pituitary tumors, tumors of nasal, nasal polyps, nasal deviation correction, decrease pressure of eyes , blade sight and correction of eye disease patients in freezing outside the griose, open the obstruction of the nasolacrimal duct, and numerous other cases.

Andoscop is a means with diameter of about ۴ mm and The length of the ۲۰ cm over the head is the study area containing lens clearly shows on the tv monitor.With lens of ۰, ۳۰, ۷۰, ۹۰, ۱۲۰ degrees . In addition to lenses suitable for tools to work the inside of the nose has been designing and producing. In endoscopic surgery, skin trouble on that instead of cutting up of access, by entering andoscop into the forecast, we will be able to find all of the frontal (frontal), Atmoied (around the eyes), Esfnoied (under of the skull), and access (feki) traumatic dislocation.
Depending on the location of the disease , surgeon use the appropriate type of lens and the looks for environs and access all of them .The surgeon after getting through and reaching of desired, open sinus tract that is closed and its relationship to self-esteem is established againand, if necessary, also of the same content inside the sinus through the discharge.

The difference between the old ways and methods of Endoscopic and surgery
Endoscopic method in needed to cut and is not related to sinus. -Endoscopic procedure, the aim of the original tract of open, based on the old method, but inside the discharge of content . Because of changes in the method of endoscopic injury that less pain and swelling so it sees less than previous conventional method. Because of the fact that the basis of endoscopic surgery, maintaining performance is therefore the result of the operation of a more successful and less back of recurrent sinusitis.
The role of CT scan in the sinus endoscopy in clinical examination possibility that normally does not exist able to see a variety of sinus .Therefore, prior to surgery, sinus CT scan in the different sounds, providing that there is a very great diagnostic means basically with a view is a CT scan we can determin that patients with chronic sinusitis and obstruction of the urethra, and sanios or not and that the path of our surgery and possible obstacles in the path of surgery. In other words CT scan from sinus before surgery, it is like in the evening when during road lights turn to us by pass this way.
Practical operation steps after full evaluation and clinical radiography and endoscopy sinus surgery should become a necessity, to various questions about the necessity of these patients in the surgery and possible complications, the cost of the surgery, the surgical location and... The answer will be given. The day of operation, about an hour of operation will be hospitalized patients in the fasting State. This operation with semi-anesthesia general anesthesia is also available. about ۲ hours operates approximately a few hours after the operation and that the remove effects of the anesthesia drugs completely, the patient shall be discharged without pain and Surgery Center of swelling and rupture . About one or two month is needed to return completely to normal respiratory status. It is better not to patients for one week fine off and even don’t up to a week after surgery to sleep underneath louder than usual glide balsht. A patient three weeks after surgery to endoscopic evaluation of discharge content and is possible that refer to the Office should the estimated remaining.
Sinus endoscopy in children because of the fact that most of these have not been established at birth and later large and gradually formed, and this increase continues until the age of maturity, too, which is even better to dilay until after puberty, sinus surgery, including common endoscopic procedures in the past or to delay.

Cleft lip and cleft palate

Cleft lip and cleft palate

Cleft lip and cleft palate, also known as facial cleft, is a group of conditions that includes cleft lip (CL), cleft palate (CP), and both together (CLP). A cleft lip contains an opening in the upper lip that may extend into the nose. The opening may be on one side, both sides, or in the middle. A cleft palate is when the roof of the mouth contains an opening into the nose. These disorders can result in feeding problems, speech problems, hearing problems, and frequent ear infections. Less than half the time the condition is associated with other disorders.
Cleft lip and palate are the result of tissues of the face not joining properly during development. As such, they are a type of birth defect. The cause is unknown in most cases. Risk factors include smoking during pregnancy, diabetes, obesity, an older mother, and certain medications (such as some used to treat seizures. Cleft lip and cleft palate can often be diagnosed during pregnancy with an ultrasound exam.
A cleft lip or palate can be successfully treated with surgery. This is often done in the first few months of life for cleft lip and before eighteen months for cleft palate. Speech therapy and dental care may also be needed. With appropriate treatment outcomes are good.
Cleft lip alone and cleft lip with a cleft palate occurs more often in boys, while cleft palate without a cleft lip occurs more often in girls.
Surgery is the main treatment. A series of operations will be required as the child grows. The first lip closure is usually performed at three months after birth. Palate closure is performed at ۶-۱۲ months. Further operations are performed to improve appearance and tooth growth.